University of York, UK. Electronic address:



To compare the effectiveness of acupuncture with other relevant physical treatments for alleviating pain due to knee osteoarthritis.


Systematic review with network meta-analysis, to allow comparison of treatments within a coherent framework. Comprehensive searches were undertaken up to January 2013 to identify randomised controlled trials in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, which reported pain.


Of 156 eligible studies, 114 trials (covering 22 treatments and 9,709 patients) provided data suitable for analysis. Most trials studied short-term effects and many were classed as being of poor quality with high risk of bias, commonly associated with lack of blinding (which was sometimes impossible to achieve). End of treatment results showed that eight interventions: interferential therapy, acupuncture, TENS, pulsed electrical stimulation, balneotherapy, aerobic exercise, sham acupuncture, and muscle-strengthening exercise produced a statistically significant reduction in pain when compared with standard care. In a sensitivity analysis of satisfactory and good quality studies, most studies were of acupuncture (11 trials) or muscle-strengthening exercise (9 trials); both interventions were statistically significantly better than standard care, with acupuncture being statistically significantly better than muscle-strengthening exercise (standardised mean difference: 0.49, 95% credible interval 0.00-0.98).


As a summary of the current available research, the network meta-analysis results indicate that acupuncture can be considered as one of the more effective physical treatments for alleviating osteoarthritis knee pain in the short-term. However, much of the evidence in this area of research is of poor quality, meaning there is uncertainty about the efficacy of many physical treatments.

Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Knee, Network meta-analysis, Osteoarthritis, Pain, Physical treatments

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Sep;21(9):1290-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.05.007.



Grenaa Akupunkturklinik, Skovbrynet, Grenaa, Denmark.



The incidence of asthma and asthmatic bronchitis (hereafter asthma) in Danish preschool children is estimated to be 10%-20%. Few well-controlled studies have been published on acupuncture and asthma, and no researchers have focused on asthma in preschool children.


The study’s primary objective was to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture for treating asthma in children aged 6 mo-6 y.


This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.


The study was conducted in two acupuncture clinics in Denmark.


The research team randomly selected preschool children with medically diagnosed asthma and assigned them 1:1 to an intervention or control group.


The intervention group received 10 acupuncture treatments over 3 mo. The control group received no placebo treatment.


Efficacy was evaluated using asthma diaries. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for the analyses of longitudinal intragroup changes and paired differences between groups. Using a two-sided, 5% significance level and a power of 90%, a sample size of 100 patients/group was necessary.


The research team randomly selected 122 children, with 52 children (26 intervention, 26 controls) being available for evaluation at 12 mo. Symptom scores and medication use were not different between the groups at 8 mo after completion of acupuncture. Significant reductions were observed in subjective asthma symptoms and in use of inhaled steroids (IHS) and β(2) agonists in both groups at 3 mo. Compared with the control group, the reduction in asthma symptoms (P = .0376) and use of IHS (P = .0005) was significantly larger in the intervention group.


Although the effect was not sustained beyond the treatment period, the study demonstrated that acupuncture had an effect on asthma in preschool children for the duration of the treatment course as assessed by subjective parameters and use of medication.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2013 Jul-Aug;19(4):13-9

Though the effects of acupuncture in atopic dermatitis have been proven in clinical studies, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness and mechanism of action for acupuncture treatment on the LI11 meridian point for treatment of allergic contact dermatitis. BALB/c mice received 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) application to induce skin inflammation. Acupuncture treatment on LI11 significantly inhibited cutaneous hyperplasia, serum IgE levels, and expression of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-4, IL-8, and TNF- α ) mRNA and NF- κ B, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 proteins. Acupuncture treatment of local points also inhibited cutaneous hyperplasia and serum IgE levels; however, it was not effective in regulating proinflammatory cytokines and proteins. In addition, LI11 treatment is more effective at reducing serum IgE levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteins than local point treatment. These results suggest that acupuncture treatment is effective in alleviating allergic contact dermatitis by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteins.

Studies of Translational Acupuncture Research (STAR), Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center (AMSRC), Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea ; Department of Korean Medical Science, Graduate School of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Pediatric Eczema

“The Treatment of Pediatric Eczema with Shu Feng Qu Shi Tang (Course Wind, Eliminate Dampness Decoction)” by Zhan Nai-jun, Zhe Jiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi (Zhejiang Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine), #6, 1994, p. 262.

The author of this article has used Shu Feng Qu Shi Tang in the treatment of 36 cases of pediatric eczema (shi zhen) with entirely good results. Of the 36 cases, 22 were boys and 14 were girls. The course of disease had lasted from as long as one month to as short as one week with an average duration of 10 days. Eleven cases also had cough and panting (i.e., asthma), diarrhea, and other such diseases.

Shu Feng Qu Shi Tang consisted of: Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae (Ren Dong Teng), 9g, stir-fried Radix Scutellariae Baicalensis (Dan Qin), Periostracum Cicadae (Chan Yi), stir-fried Fructus Citri Seu Ponciri (Zhi Ke), and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chen Pi), 2g @, processed Bambyx Batryticatus (Jiang Can) and Cortex Radicis Dictamni (Bai Xian Pi), 6g @, stir-fried Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu), stir-fried Rhizoma Atractylodis (Cang Zhu), and Herba Agastachis Seu Pogostemmi (Huo Xiang), 5g @. If heat was heavy, Cortex Gardeniae Jasminodis (Zhi Zi Pi) and Rhizoma Imperatae Cylindricae (Bai Mao Gen) were added. If wind was severe, Radix Ledebouriellae Sesloidis (Fang Feng) and Folium Mori Albi (Sang Ye) were added. If dampness was severe, Semen Coicis Lachryma-jobi (Mi Ren) was added. And if the bowel movements were rough or coarse with foul smelling flatulence, carbonized Fructus Crataegi (Shan Zha Tan) was added.

Of the 36 cases, 34 were completely cured after taking the above medicinals internally for one week. The other two patients were cured after taking it for half a month.

Case history: Girl, 5.5 months old. Eczema had broke out half a month previously. Originally it had been on the head and face but had spread to the four limbs. Her spirit was vexed and her sleep was restless. When the lesions were scratched, a fatty water flowed. Her appetite was good, her stools were dry, there was smelly flatulence, yellowish urine, a white, slimy tongue coating, and her fingernails were pale purplish. In order to course wind and eliminate dampness aided by leveling the liver, she was given the basic formula minus Rhizoma Atractylodis (Cang Zhu) and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chen Pi) but with Flos Chrysanthemi Morifolii (Gan Ju), 6g, Fructus Tribuli Terrestris (Bai Ji Li), 9g, Folium Lophatheri Gracilis (Dan Zhu Ye), 5g, and Medulla Junci Effusi (Chen Deng Xin), 2 bundles. The child was given 3 ji.

On the return examination after taking the above medicinals, the lesions on the head and face were still apparent but the itching sensation was markedly diminished. At night, her sleep was more restful, her appetite was good, and her stools were loosish one to two times per day. At this time, her tongue coating was thin and slimy. Therefore, Rhizoma Atractylodis, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, and Pericostracum Cicadae were removed from the basic formula and stir-fried Semen Coicis Lachryma-jobi (Mi Ren), stir-fried Fructus Germinatus Oryzae Sativae (Gu Ya), Sclerotium Poriae Cocos (Fu Ling), and stir-fried Semen Dolichos Lablabis (Bian Dou), 9g @, and Fructus Kochiae Scopariae (Di Fu Zi), 6g, were added in order to strengthen the fortifying of the spleen and transforming of the dampness. After 4 ji of the above formula, the eczema was cured.

According to the author, this disease is known as milk tinea (nai xuan) in TCM. Usually it is due to fetal fire and damp heat. Internally, it is caused by damp heat internally smoldering, while externally it is due to wind evils externally invading. Thus wind and dampness become depressed in the flesh and exterior causing the onset of this disease. Because children’s spleens are normally insufficient, it is not appropriate to use too many bitter, cold ingredients. Rather one should mainly use sweet, cold ones. In this formula, Caulis Lonicerae and a small amount of Scutellaria are the main medicinals for clearing wind, damp, and heat evils. Folium Mori and Periostracum Cicadae course the wind and clear heat. Bombyx Batryticatus and Dictamnus eliminate wind dampness and stop itching. Orange Peel and Agastaches aromatically and fragrantly arouse the stomach and eliminate dampness. While the two Atractylodes and Citrus Seu Poncirus transport the spleen, rectify the qi, and eliminate dampness at its root. When wind evils are coursed and damp heat eliminated, there are the results.

Female Genital Sores

“The Chinese Medicinal Treatment of 21 Cases of (Female) Genital Sores” by Hong Jian-nan & Wang Ru, Zhong Yi Za Zhi (The Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine), #2, 1994, p. 98.

According to the authors, the modern Western medical conditions of Bartholin’s cyst, vulval abscesses, postpartum infection of an episiotomy wound, and other such bacterial infections are types of acute pyogenic, inflammatory conditions which TCM simply refers to as yin chuang, (female) genital sores. From 1986-1991, the authors treated 21 cases using Chinese medicinals which clear heat and quicken the blood with entirely satisfactory results.

Of the 21 women treated, there were 15 cases of Bartholin’s cysts, 4 cases of postpartum infection of episiotomy wounds, and 2 cases of vulval or external genital abscesses. The youngest patient was 20 years old and the oldest was 65. Two women were unmarried and 19 were married. The shortest course of disease was 4 days and the longest was more than 1 year. In most of the patients, on examination, there was either open wounds or obvious redness, swelling, heat, and pain in the local region. In those women with postpartum infections of episiotomy wounds, the largest lesion was 10cm x 4cm x 3cm and the smallest was 4cm x 2cm x 2cm.

The formula used consisted of: Cortex Phellodendri (Huang Bai), 30g, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis (Ku Shen), 30g, Rhizoma Coptidis Chinensis (Huang Lian), 6g, Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae (Lian Qiao), 15g, Radix Rubrus Paeoniae Lactiflorae (Chi Shao), 30g, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Dan Shen), 30g, and Lignum Sappanis (Su Mu), 30g.

These Chinese medicinals were soaked in water for 30 minutes. Then more water was added in order to cover these medicinals to a depth of 3cm. They were next decocted down to 20ml. Each ji was decocted 3 times and the decocted fluid added together. This fluid was then allowed to cool to 35-37_C. Each evening before sleep, the patients took a sitz bath in this medicinal fluid. If there was an open wound, each day, after the doctors made their rounds (i.e., in the morning), the wound was rinsed with Coptis and Phellodendron water. Afterwards, Hong Fen Gao (Mercuric Oxide Paste) was applied to transform putrefaction and generate (new) flesh. Ten days equaled one course of treatment.

All 21 cases were cured with this treatment and all their symptoms disappeared. Four cases were cured in one course of treatment, 15 cases in two courses of treatment, and two cases in two courses of treatment.

Case history: Zhang X, female, 26 years old. The patient had had a postpartum infection of an episiotomy wound for nine days before being admitted to the hospital. The affected area was red, swollen, hot, and painful. The wound was approximately 4cm x 2cm x 2cm in size. It exuded a copious amount of pus. Treatment was given as described above. Three days later, the superficial skin was beginning to heal. Yu Hong Gao (Jade Red Paste) was applied to generate flesh and close the wound. Five days later, there was no further bacterial growth. After two courses of treatment, the disease was cured and the patient was discharged from the hospital.

Acupuncture Provides True Pain Relief in Study

Acupuncture may be helpful in treating migraines, arthritis and chronic pain.Gordon Welters for The New York Times Acupuncture may be helpful in treating migraines, arthritis and chronic pain.

A new study of acupuncture — the most rigorous and detailed analysis of the treatment to date — found that it can ease migraines and arthritis and other forms of chronic pain.

The findings provide strong scientific support for an age-old therapy used by an estimated three million Americans each year. Though acupuncture has been studied for decades, the body of medical research on it has been mixed and mired to some extent by small and poor-quality studies. Financed by the National Institutes of Health and carried out over about half a decade, the new research was a detailed analysis of earlier research that involved data on nearly 18,000 patients.

The researchers, who published their results in Archives of Internal Medicine, found that acupuncture outperformed sham treatments and standard care when used by people suffering from osteoarthritis, migraines and chronic back, neck and shoulder pain.

“This has been a controversial subject for a long time,” said Dr. Andrew J. Vickers, attending research methodologist at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and the lead author of the study. “But when you try to answer the question the right way, as we did, you get very clear answers.

“We think there’s firm evidence supporting acupuncture for the treatment of chronic pain.”

Acupuncture, which involves inserting needles at various places on the body to stimulate so-called acupoints, is among the most widely practiced forms of alternative medicine in the country and is offered by many hospitals. Most commonly the treatment is sought by adults looking for relief from chronic pain, though it is also used with growing frequency in children. According to government estimates, about 150,000 children in the United States underwent acupuncture in 2007.

But for all its popularity, questions about its efficacy have long been commonplace. Are those who swear by it experiencing true relief or the psychological balm of the placebo effect?

Dr. Vickers and a team of scientists from around the world — England, Germany, Sweden and elsewhere — sought an answer by pooling years of data. Rather than averaging the results or conclusions from years of previous studies, a common but less rigorous form of meta-analysis, Dr. Vickers and his colleagues first selected 29 randomized studies of acupuncture that they determined to be of high quality. Then they contacted the authors to obtain their raw data, which they scrutinized and pooled for further analysis. This helped them correct for statistical and methodological problems with the previous studies, allowing them to reach more precise and reliable conclusions about whether acupuncture actually works.

All told, the painstaking process took the team about six years. “Replicating pretty much every single number reported in dozens of papers is no quick or easy task,” Dr. Vickers said.

The meta-analysis included studies that compared acupuncture with usual care, like over-the-counter pain relievers and other standard medicines. It also included studies that used sham acupuncture treatments, in which needles were inserted only superficially, for example, or in which patients in control groups were treated with needles that covertly retracted into handles.

Ultimately, Dr. Vickers and his colleagues found that at the end of treatment, about half of the patients treated with true acupuncture reported improvements, compared with about 30 percent of patients who did not undergo it.

“There were 30 or 40 people from all over the world involved in this research, and as a whole the sense was that this was a clinically important effect size,” Dr. Vickers said. That is especially the case, he added, given that acupuncture “is relatively noninvasive and relatively safe.”

Has acupuncture worked for you? Join in the discussion below.

Dr. Vickers said the results of the study suggest that people undergoing the treatment are getting more than just a psychological boost. “They’re not just getting some placebo effect,” he said. “It’s not some sort of strange healing ritual.”

In an accompanying editorial, Dr. Andrew L. Avins, a research scientist at Kaiser Permanente who focuses on musculoskeletal pain and preventive medicine, wrote that the relationship between conventional medical care “and the world of complementary and alternative medicine remains ambiguous.” But at least in the case of acupuncture, he wrote, the new study provides “robust evidence” that it provides “modest benefits over usual care for patients with diverse sources of chronic pain.”

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Jan 30.

Impact of Tai Chi exercise on multiple fracture-related risk factors in post-menopausal osteopenic women: a pilot pragmatic, randomized trial.

Wayne PM, Kiel DP, Buring JE, Connors EM, Bonato P, Yeh GY, Cohen CJ, Mancinelli C, Davis RB.

Fractures resulting from low bone mineral (BMD) in osteopenic post-menopausal women are associated with significant long-term morbidity and high medical costs. Optimal interventions for this population are not yet well-defined. Since life-long drug therapy is expensive with uncertain consequences and potential toxicities, non-pharmacologic therapy offers an attractive alternative. Tai Chi (TC) is a mind-body exercise that shows potential as an effective, safe and practical intervention for women with low BMD. This study presents promising results from a pilot randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of TC combined with usual care, compared to usual care alone, for attenuating bone loss in postmenopausal osteopenic women. An embedded biomotion sub-study also found that Tai Chi training could improve parameters of balance that have been associated with reduced fall risk. A unique feature of this study was that interventions were pragmatically provided in prescreened TC schools in the Greater Boston area to maximize study generalizability.

Group acupuncture for knee pain: evaluation of a cost-saving initiative in the health service

Open Access

  1. Adrian White1,
  2. Marion Richardson2,
  3. Pamela Richmond3,
  4. Jonathan Freedman2,
  5. Mark Bevis4

+ Author Affiliations

  1. 1Department of Primary Care, Peninsula Medical School, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK

  2. 2Parkbury House Surgery, St Albans, UK

  3. 3Midway Surgery, St Albans, Herts, UK

  4. 4St Albans and Harpenden MSK CATS
  1. Correspondence to Dr Adrian White, Department of Primary Care, Peninsula Medical School, Plymouth University, N21 ITTC Building, Tamar Science Park, Plymouth PL6 8BX, UK;
  • Received 29 February 2012
  • Accepted 28 May 2012
  • Published Online First 20 August 2012


Background Acupuncture has been provided in nurse-led group clinics in St Albans since 2008. It is funded by a commissioning group within the National Health Service, on a trial basis, for patients with knee osteoarthritis who would otherwise be referred to an orthopaedic surgeon.

Aim To evaluate the patients seen in the service’s first year of operation and their outcome up to the end of 2010.

Methods Service evaluation was made of patient data from the referral centre and the acupuncture clinics, including baseline characteristics, attendance data and Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) symptom, function and well-being scores over at least 2 years.

Results 114 patients were offered acupuncture, of whom 90 patients were assessed in the acupuncture clinics. 41 of these were still attending after 1 year and 31 (34%) after 2 years. MYMOP scores showed clinically significant improvements at 1 month for pain (4.2 (SD 1.2) to 2.9 (SD 1.4)), stiffness (4.1 (SD 1.3) to 2.9 (SD 1.3)) and function (4.5 (SD 1.1) to 3.3 (SD 1.2)) which continued up to 2 years. Well-being scores did not change.

Conclusions This is the first evaluation of nurse-led group (multibed) acupuncture clinics for patients with knee osteoarthritis to include a 2 year follow-up. It shows the practicability of offering a low-cost acupuncture service as an alternative to knee surgery and the service’s success in providing long-term symptom relief in about a third of patients. Using realistic assumptions, the cost consequences for the local commissioning group are an estimated saving of £100 000 a year. Sensitivity analyses are presented using different assumptions.

Acupunct Med 2012;30:170-175 doi:10.1136/acupmed-2012-010151

Acupuncture Does Help for Chronic Pain

Published: Sep 10, 2012




Acupuncture provides more relief from various types of chronic pain than does usual care and should be considered a valid therapeutic option, the authors of a meta-analysis concluded.

For back and neck pain, osteoarthritis, and chronic headache, pain scores among patients treated with acupuncture were 0.23 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.33), 0.16 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.25) and 0.15 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.24) standard deviations below the scores for patients receiving sham acupuncture (P<0.001 for all), according to Andrew J. Vickers, DPhil, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City, and colleagues.

But effect sizes were even larger when acupuncture was compared with no acupuncture, with scores of 0.55 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.58), 0.57 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.64), and 0.42 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.46) standard deviations lower (P<0.001 for all), the researchers reported online in Archives of Internal Medicine.

Acupuncture is recognized as having certain physiologic effects that can contribute to pain relief, but no plausible mechanism has been identified that could lead to long-term benefits for chronic pain, with the result that the treatment remains “highly controversial,” according to the researchers.

Many controlled studies of acupuncture for pain have been published, but quality has been inconsistent and reliability has been questioned.

To provide more clarity about the effects of acupuncture on pain, Vickers and colleagues conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis based exclusively on high quality randomized trials.

Included trials required pain of at least a month’s duration, with the primary endpoint being assessed at least a month after acupuncture treatment began.

The researchers were able to acquire the original raw data for 29 studies that included 17,922 patients.

To explain the clinical significance of the effect sizes found in the meta-analyses, they noted that a typical pain score in a clinical trial might be 60 on a 100-point scale.

If the standard deviation was assumed to be 25, scores after treatment could be 30 for true acupuncture, 35 for sham acupuncture, and 43 for no acupuncture, they estimated.

Another way of looking at this would be that if response was categorized as a decrease in pain of 50%, response rates would be 50% for true acupuncture compared with 42.5% and 30% for sham acupuncture and no acupuncture, respectively.

“The average effect, as expressed in the meta-analytic estimate of approximately 0.5 [standard deviations], is of clear clinical relevance whether considered either as a standardized difference or when converted back to a pain scale,” Vickers and colleagues stated.

They noted that there was significant heterogeneity in a number of the analyses, particularly in the control groups of the various studies.

In some trials, for example, patients in the usual-care control groups were permitted to have rescue analgesics only, while in other studies there were exercise and physical therapy programs.

Moreover, in the sham acupuncture trials, different approaches were permitted, such as using nonpenetrating needles and using non-needle methods such as inactive electrical stimulation.

Other limitations of the meta-analysis included the possibility of bias when acupuncture was compared with no acupuncture and the use of different endpoints in some trials.

Nonetheless, the authors stated that their findings should be considered “both clinically and scientifically important.”

They noted that many clinicians would be unwilling to refer a patient for acupuncture if the effects derived only from the nonspecific belief on the part of the patient that the treatment would help.

But the finding that true acupuncture had significantly greater effects than the sham procedure indicates that the effects of the procedure do extend beyond placebo, they observed.

This is “of major importance for clinical practice,” meaning that acupuncture should be considered “a reasonable referral option for patients with chronic pain,” they stated.

In an invited commentary accompanying the meta-analysis, Andrew L. Avins, MD, of Kaiser-Permanente in Oakland, Calif., argued that the benefits indeed were primarily those associated with the placebo effect, because the pain relief was so much greater when acupuncture was compared with usual care than when compared with the sham procedure.

But whether that should mean acupuncture has no value for patients, largely because of uncertainty as to its mechanisms of action, is a crucial concern, he pointed out.

“The ultimate question is: does this intervention work (or, more completely, do its benefits outweigh its risks and justify its cost)?” Avins wrote.

For acupuncture, the current meta-analysis offers “some robust evidence” that acupuncture does provide greater chronic pain relief than usual care, mechanisms of effect aside.

“Perhaps a more productive strategy at this point would be to provide whatever benefits we can for our patients, while we continue to explore more carefully all mechanisms of healing,” Avins concluded.

Funding for this work was provided by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, the Samueli Institute, and the U.K. National Institute for Health Research.

Authors and editorialist all reported no financial disclosures.

By Liao SJ; Liao TA.

Chinese Reports on the Treatment of Various Dermatological Conditions

Acupuncture treatment for psoriasis: a retrospective case report.
Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research, 1992 Jul-Sep, 17(3):195-208. (UI: 93034519) AT: UCLA siomed wl AC999T
(PE title: Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research.)

Abstract: We treated 61 cases of psoriasis with acupuncture, including 25 patients with complications of joint involvement and two cases with scleroderma additionally. All of the patients had failed to respond to their prior conventional western medical management. 25 patients were males and 36 were females. Their ages ranged from 22 to 84 years, with an average of about 52 years. There was no significant difference of the average ages between the sexes. Most of them (about 61%) had quite extensive involvement of the body. The average of duration of their illness was over 16 years, ranging from two to 65 years.

They received an average of about nine sessions of acupuncture treatment, ranging from one to 15. Almost one third (19) of them had eleven to thirteen sessions.

With the acupuncture treatment, about one-half (30) of the 61 patients had complete or almost complete clearance of the skin lesions. About a quarter (14 patients) of them had a clearance of about two thirds of the skin lesions. Eight of them had a clearance of one third of the skin lesions. Nine patients had minimal or no improvement.

Our experience indicates that acupuncture is an effective therapeutic modality for psoriasis, particularly when the western medical management is unsuccessful. We speculated about the possible involvement of the cutaneous reticuloendothelial system in the clearance of the skin lesions